Atmosphere- Solar energy interceptor, stratrospheric ozone, ionosphere, mix of gases into one –air.
Hydrosphere – 73% of earth is water- precipitation- watersheds, rivers, oceans, groundwater, weather, extreme weather.
OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS
Systems affect each other all the time. Systems that interact dynamically, flowing into one another in varying amounts even if periodically, are OPEN systems.
The Earth is an OPEN SYSTEM in terms of energy flow, solar energy flows out and heat seeps out a little amount into the VOID. Earth is affected by the biggest star in our solar system. Those rare planets lightly touched by the sun. Sun comes in, heat goes out. (Or not- and that’s the problem with global warming).
Photo- meaning light, Synthesis- meaning to bring together,
Sunlight is converted into carbohydrates to fuel food webs.
Like CO2 and H2O (carbon dioxide and water) are used by plants during photosynthesis to make carbohydrates =CHO carbohydrates and hydrocarbons and 02oxygen.
Earth has Carbon-based life-forms. That is: The leaf matter is arranged in cells, cells with walls of a carbon form called cellulose- so plants take-up and hold on to carbon in the carbon dioxide and they release the extra oxide or oxygen. We need the carbos and oxygen to fuel our lives. We take in sugars, and Oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
Without sunlight, the Photosynthesis system reverse flows and begins to respirate. Just like us.
Ancient plant cells or sugars. That CO2 is building up in the atmosphere. Because we have a closed system, it does not drift out in outer space, LA smog drifts over to Phoenix, SF smog drifts to Fresno.
What is your Carbon Footprint? The average American is responsible for using 20 tons of Carbon Dioxide per year. See www.footprintnetwork.org
Nothing stays the same… Change is a constant…Time is always moving into the fourth dimension. What are the three dimensions? Height, width, depth, and the fourth is time.
Inside the system, there are cycles based on feedback.
Pg. 7 shows 2 kinds of feedback:
Positive feedback –
See global warming, increasing gases= Increasing temperatures. Melting glaciers and ice caps, creates more dark areas that can absorb more heat and melt ice. More melting occurs faster = positive feedback
Negative feedback –
- Take the price of gasoline- What will rising gas prices do to your driving? More money=less miles driven
Steady-State- minimal fluxuation- constant or recur. A steady average.
i.e. Coral reefs at 21 degrees North latitiude for 60 million years.
Called Darwin Point, after that great scientist.
What is a model?
Idealized, simplified mathematical perspective –
Only as good as assumptions, accuracy
Or as they say-Garbage in- Garbage out.
WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC THINKING?
Or the scientific method.
What data is needed?=Observation
Compare to real experience=Reasoning
Test and confirm= general theory, law
Let talk about this application of common sense in an organized and objective manner.
5- scientific laws.
6- what is a theory? extensively tested hypothesis
7- what is a hypothesis?
8- broad general principals
9- -like gravity
chaos theory-verses steady state- vs. social and political judgments- creationism vs. evolution, but it’s a theory… like gravity is a theory, a universal law but called a theory.
LOCATION –LOCATION- LOCATION
The cardinal directions. North South East West.
This is not a new science but ever since humans evolved, there has been geographers. Which way to the cave? Earth Wind Fire Air
Where on Earth is the classroom?
Courtyard, street, city, state, country, continent, biome,
Room A266, Laney College, Oak St. Oakland, CA, 94704. Ecotopia, North America, Western Hemisphere,
TIME AND PLACE
Two fundamentals geography has addressed. And we’ll address in this course lecture and lab.
Non-geometric – by Lake Merritt, 2 blocks south of Bart,
Hawaii has two directions, mauka and makai, mountains and sea. Buckminster Fuller says there are no norths and souths only in and out.
Metric means for location- Laney = 37º N X 122º W
Coordinated grid system imposed over the earth. Globe. And other planets as well (e.g. Moon)
Universal coordinates allows method of accurately measuring and locating place and distance.
Ptolemy Ancient Babylonian= Iraq in 90 AD divided the circle into 360 degrees each degree into 60 minutes, each minute into seconds. (Not Time Units)
Latitude, and longitude measured degrees, minutes and seconds. Isn’t that interesting the place and time are measured with similar named units?
Parallels of Latitude-
0º to 90º equator to the poles. Equal on both hemispheres of globe
describe half of global.- Latitude is a circle, belt, band.
The map is flat- the globe is round, more precisely a spheroid, bulging along the middle caused by gravity.
Latitude is a North-South measure with a midpoint at 90º at each end. Per hemisphere. Half of the global. Equal to each other.
EG. North hemisphere, – the developed world.
South hemi- the lesser developed world.
Tropic of Cancer- the crab- @ 23.5 N
The topic of Capricorn @ 23.5–0S.
The most extremes from the equator that experience the sun directly overhead (perpendicular) on the first day of summer June 21, at noon.
Arctic Circle-@ 66.N
Antarctic circle at 66ºS.
Walk around the world in 10 steps.
37º 45’ 10” N X 122º
Pg. 17 LONGITUDE-
0-180º É and W, each hemisphere,
All points on a meridian are the same time, because they all have the same rotation with the sun.
Satellites rotate with the earth and beam back our positions via triangulation.
International date line and Prime meridian 0 and 180
GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT) and atomic clocks.
In the years since Jesus Died. I wonder how this got started?
Cartography. Generalizing an area graphically
Depict location and space, landforms and networks.
How much info to pack in?
Elevation or vertical relief steepness via contour lines= topographic map.
A selective minaturization.
Chart- is a nautical or aeronautical map.
Photogrammetry extremely accurate
With a common denominator.
1:24000 inches/12 in a foot= 2000 ft
See Table 1/3 on page 24.
In order to keep that relationship constant as copies of models are reduced in scale, a Graphic scale is used.
1 in = 25,000 miles- earth circumphrance-1/15,840,000
But it is too difficult to work with so a representative portion is mapped or projected but the distortion must be accounted, if the maps are to be any use.
2- Meridians converge at poles
3 -Parallel and meridian hit at right angle.